Adobe Photoshop

Adobe photoshop is a graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems. It is the current market leader for commercialbitmap and image manipulation software, and is the flagship product of Adobe Systems. It has been described as "an industry standard for graphics professionals"[1]and was one of the early "killer applications" on the Macintosh, later also for MS Windows.[2]

Adobe's 2003 "Creative Suite" rebranding led to Adobe Photoshop 8's renaming to Adobe Photoshop CS. Thus, Adobe Photoshop CS4 is the 11th major release of Adobe Photoshop. The CS rebranding also resulted in Adobe offering numerous software packages containing multiple Adobe programs for a reduced price. Adobe Photoshop is included in most of Adobe's Creative Suite offerings.

Early history...

In 1987, Thomas Knoll, a PhD student at the University of Michigan, began writing a program on his Macintosh Plus to display grayscale images on a monochrome display. This program, called Display, caught the attention of his brother John Knoll, an Industrial Light & Magicemployee, who recommended Thomas turn it into a full-fledged image editing program. Thomas took a six month break from his studies in 1988 to collaborate with his brother on the program, which had been renamed ImagePro.[3] Later that year, Thomas renamed his program Photoshop and worked out a short-term deal with scanner manufacturer Barneyscan to distribute copies of the program with a slide scanner; a "total of about 200 copies of Photoshop were shipped" this way.[4]

During this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and gave a demonstration of the program to engineers at Apple and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe. Both showings were successful, and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September 1988.[3] While John worked on plug-ins in California, Thomas remained inAnn Arbor writing program code. Photoshop 1.0 was released in 1990 for Macintosh exclusively.


Photoshop has strong ties with other Adobe software for media editing, animation, and authoring. The .PSD (Photoshop Document), Photoshop's native format, stores an image with support for most imaging options available in Photoshop. These include layers with masks,color spacesICC profiles, transparency, text, alpha channels and spot colorsclipping paths, and duotone settings. This is in contrast to many other file formats (e.g. .EPS or .GIF) that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality.

Photoshop's popularity means that the .PSD format is widely used, and it is supported to some extent by most competing software. The .PSD file format can be exported to and from Adobe IllustratorAdobe Premiere Pro, and After Effects, to make professional standard DVDs and provide non-linear editing and special effects services, such as backgrounds, textures, and so on, for television, film, and the Web. Photoshop is a pixel-based image editor, unlike programs such as Macromedia FreeHand (now defunct), Adobe IllustratorInkscape or CorelDraw, which are vector-based image editors.

Photoshop can utilize the color models RGBlabCMYKgrayscale, binary bitmap, and duotone. Photoshop has the ability to read and writeraster and vector image formats such as .EPS.PNG.GIF.JPEG, and Adobe Fireworks.

Further information: Comparison of raster graphics editors#Features


Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins which act like mini-editors that modify the image. The most common type are filter plugins that provide various image effects. They are located in the 'Filter' menu. Photoshop plugin API has become a standard, and many other image editors also support Photoshop Plugins.

Adobe Camera Raw (also known as ACR and Camera Raw) is a special plugin, supplied free by Adobe, used primarily to read and process raw image files so that the resultant images can be processed by Photoshop.[15] It is invoked by attempting to open such a file, rather than from the 'Filter' menu, but like other plugins is listed in the 'Help > About Plug-In' menu (as "Camera Raw").

For more details,click here:Photoshop plugin


Photoshop CS4 features a completely new 3d engine that allows users the ability to paint directly on 3D models, wrap 2D images around 3D shapes, convert gradient maps to 3D objects, add depth to layers and text, get print-quality output with the new ray-tracing rendering engine, and enjoy exporting to supported common 3D formats; the new Adjustment and Mask Panels; Content-aware scaling (also known as seam carving[8]); Fluid Canvas Rotation and File display options.[9]On 30 April, Adobe released Photoshop CS4 Extended, which includes all the same features of Adobe Photoshop CS4 with the addition of capabilities for scientific imaging, 3D, and high end film and video users. The successor to Photoshop CS3, Photoshop CS4 is the first 64-bitPhotoshop on consumer computers (only on Windows – the OS X version is still 32-bit only.)

CS5(in progress)

Adobe is currently developing Photoshop CS5, which will be launched on April 12, 2010.[11] In a video posted on its official Facebook page, the development team revealed the new technologies under development, including three dimensional brushes and warping tools.[12] Adobe CS5 is expected to make strong use of CUDA technology on Nvidia graphics cards.[13]

A version of Adobe Photoshop CS5 Expanded was used for a Prerelease Beta. A large group of selected Photoshop users were invited to beta test in Mid-February of 2010.

Further details: